In most jurisdictions in Ontario, the convention is that left turns will precede the straight-ahead (through) movements in the same direction. Why is this the case? There’s actually more to it than meets the eye.
When I was in my third year at the University of Waterloo, I lived in the west end of town, off Keats Way. My commute by bicycle commute was generally quite enjoyable by North American standards, it took place almost entirely on quiet streets or in dedicated bicycle lanes. And it was very fast too! The 2.1 km trip took about 8 minutes, and if I was lucky with the one traffic signal, I could make the entire trip home without stopping once.
Here was my route, categorized by my comfort level (green is relaxed, red is stressed):
The worst part of my journey was making the right turn off University Avenue onto Keats Way. Right-turning cyclists share the right turn lane with motor traffic turning right, which often results in motorists speeding past and cutting in front of cyclists to save a few seconds. Even when drivers would remain a safe and respectful distance behind, I felt pressured to ride quickly to avoid delaying them, adding stress to my otherwise relaxed commute.
Cyclists travelling straight along University are also exposed to this same conflict, as the bicycle lane runs between the through lanes and the right turn lane. While it’s not statistically clear that this is actually a dangerous situation, it certainly feels very unsafe – making cycling along this route an unattractive prospect for the majority of people.
Keeping the bike lanes always on the right of the traffic lane rather than merging them together would completely eliminate interactions with motor traffic for right-turning cyclists. This would move the conflict point onto the actual intersection for through cyclists, where it can be addressed separately.
I think that the best solution here would be fully-protected signal phases. This means that turning cars and bicycles would each have their own dedicated signal, which only allows one to proceed while the other is stopped at a red signal.
The usual way of managing this conflict – where turning cars yield to bikes and pedestrians – would be considerably more dangerous. In order to allow large vehicles such as GRT’s Route 29 bus to make the turn, the corner radius needs to be very large. This would then translate to high turning speeds for cars, which increases the risk that a car fail to yield to a cyclist or pedestrian crossing Keats Way.
Here’s what the intersection could look like with protected bike paths and traffic signals:
Protected signal phases can actually be implemented efficiently here because the bulk of the movements are compatible with each other. For the most part, people are travelling straight along University or turning off Keats Way to/from the east.
Hardly anyone makes a left turn from University to Keats Way or a right turn off Keats Way onto University since this would be basically sending them back the way they came. This last signal phase would therefore hardly ever occur:
Last week I gave a quick overview of the new Queens Quay Boulevard bicycle path, which has been completed between Spadina Avenue and Bay Street in Toronto. It is a joy to ride, being laterally separated from motor traffic as well as from pedestrians. But there is one area which can be stressful: pedestrian-bicycle conflict points. Fortunately this issue is quite easy to fix.
Two issues typically occur at these conflict points. During the green light for east-west bicycles, many pedestrians inadvertently wander into the path of bicycle traffic, and during the red light for bicycles (green for north-south pedestrians), many cyclists stop too far forward, blocking the crosswalk.
It seems fairly obvious why pedestrians could easily wander into the bicycle path. At these conflict points, it is paved in the same tiling pattern as the sidewalk, delineated only by tiled elephant’s feet. While these may be the correct markings to put in such a location, the fact that they are made of tiles makes them easy to mistake for simply another aesthetic flourish like the tiled maple leaves.
The solution to this issue is to make the path obvious by extending the asphalt paving through the pedestrian crossing point. Ideally there would also be a slight elevation change – a ramp down to the cycle track and back up on the other side – but that would be unreasonably expensive to retrofit at this point.
The explanation for cyclists stopping in the wrong location also seems fairly obvious. At intersections, the bicycle path has a large blue square, followed by a white bar then the granite-tiled pedestrian crossing point.
I spend a great deal of time looking at road designs all over the world, yet it took me a while to figure out what all these markings were supposed to mean. The blue box seems to be some sort of stopping area, but it covers the entire width of the path, which does not make sense. If people were to wait all the way across the box, they would be blocking people going the other direction. Similarly the white bar is presumably a stop bar, but since it also covers the entire width of the path, it is unrecognizable as such.
This confusion can be easily eliminated by using the standard North American road markings that we’re all familiar with. Here’s what a typical intersection would look like with these changes. Technically the centre line should be a single dashed line to indicate that overtaking is permitted, but I’m not as concerned about that.
There are a couple intersections where this standard design might not work as well: York Street, and Spadina Avenue.
At York Street there is a very large distance between the pedestrian crossing point and the eastbound bicycle signals. It is not reasonable to expect cyclists to stop before the pedestrian crossing and remain there until the light turns green, since cyclists will be able to clearly see when it is safe to proceed to the edge of the roadway crossing.
In this case, I think the pedestrian crossing can be treated separately from the traffic signal, since there is a sufficient distance between them for cyclists to react to them independently. A simple priority arrangement would do the trick: either pedestrians would be given priority by adding a zebra crossing and a pedestrian crossing sign, or bicycles would be given priority by extending the asphalt through the crossing and adding bicycle markings for clarity. Here’s what it would look like with pedestrian priority:
At Spadina Avenue, there are no signals for the bicycle path at all. Since there is very little space for pedestrians to wait between the bicycle path and the signalized intersection, I think the only option is to formalize pedestrian priority using a zebra crossing and a sign. Here’s what that would look like:
I have very high standards when it comes to cycling infrastructure. So the fact that the issues I have with this path can be addressed with measures as simple as pavement markings is a testament to the quality of the design. Waterfront Toronto really nailed the basic design of the street, and with these conflicts clarified, the street would be on par with international best practice.
On Friday June 19th 2015, Queens Quay Boulevard was officially re-opened. Through years of design, consultation and construction, the street was transformed from an ordinary road to a grand boulevard.
The project, led by Waterfront Toronto, was to completely redesign the central segment of Queens Quay Boulevard, between Spadina Avenue and Bay Street. Previously, the configuration was of two traffic lanes in each direction and a streetcar right-of-way, with ordinary sidewalks on each side. There was no bicycle infrastructure whatsoever, even though the street was part of Toronto Bicycle Route 2, a major east-west route across the city.
The new configuration is of a roadway, a streetcar right-of-way, and a bicycle path, each with one lane in each direction. And the south sidewalk has been widened to act as a waterfront promenade that can accommodate a variety of uses including street vendors, seating, events and of course strolling.
East and west of the project area, there were one-way painted bicycle lanes on each side of the street. With the new segment being a bi-directional path on the south side, a westbound cyclist would have been required to cross to the south side of street at Bay Street, and back to the north side at Spadina Avenue. That configuration was unacceptable to Waterfront Toronto, since their goal was a seamless journey along the street. So in conjunction with the central project, they created two additional projects to complete the two-way bicycle path along the entire length of the street, completing the Martin Goodman Trail across the central city. These secondary projects were built to a noticeably lower standard, since they are merely temporary connections until those street segments get completely rebuilt like the central segment.
But today’s post is a celebration of the completed central segment and its top-notch cycling infrastructure. Check out the video below for a virtual ride along the path, noting that the central segment ends at 6:24.
The new Queens Quay Blvd is an embodiment of 8-80 principles, whereby streets should be safe and comfortable for anyone between the ages of 8 and 80. Bicycle traffic is kept well away from car traffic, and conflicts are all managed using protected signal phases. Pedestrians and cyclists each have their own path, with a generous granite sidewalk separated from the path by a row of benches.
A quick look at the people riding along the street confirms that the redesign has been successful in attracting people of all ages and abilities to try riding a bicycle across downtown Toronto.
Of course, it has not been entirely a success story. Two major deficiencies quickly became apparent with the design: the design of pavement markings at pedestrian-bicycle conflict points gives both modes the impression that they have priority over the other, and the placement of the left turn signals makes them easy for drivers to miss, which has resulted in several collisions.
Fortunately, signal placement and pavement markings are relatively easy to fix. Once they are revised, I would have no hesitation in proclaiming the central segment of Queens Quay to be the best piece of urban cycling infrastructure in Ontario.
Westheights Drive is a “community collector street” providing access to the Forest Heights neighbourhood in southwest Kitchener. It is currently a 4 lane street, with parking permitted in the curb lanes.
A look at the streetscape quickly reveals that it is completely inappropriate for its residential context. The layout gives the impression of an arterial road, promoting speeds well in excess of the 40 km/h limit, and allowing aggressive driving such as overtaking on the right.
To fix these problems and create a street that is respectful of the neighbourhood it serves, the City of Kitchener is planning a “road diet” on Westheights Drive. The proposed design rearranges the street into two bicycles lanes, two motor traffic lanes and one lane of on-street parking.
This design represents best practice in on-street painted bicycle lane design. It provides lanes that are comfortably wide, with a further 0.5 m separation from motor traffic. Conflict areas at intersections are coloured for added visibility. And most importantly, there is a wide buffer between parked cars and the bicycle lane, keeping cyclists safely away from opening car doors.
Toronto Bicycle Route 29 runs north-south from the Waterfront Trail to Davenport Road, along Shaw Street and Strachan Avenue. With a length of 5 km, it is the longest north-south bicycle route in the city centre.
Shaw street was one-way southbound until 2013, when the city installed a northbound “contra-flow” bicycle lane. Cycling is now permitted in both directions, with northbound cyclists in a reserved lane, and southbound cyclists sharing the lane with motor traffic.
I have used the street many times in the northbound direction, and have found it to be a convenient and pleasant route. But riding southbound is a drastically different experience.
The bicycle route between the inner city of Utrecht, the Netherlands and its outlying university is what I consider to be a perfect bicycle route. As far as I can tell, it doesn’t have a specific name, but it consists of a bidirectional bicycle path along the east side of Waterlinieweg, Pythagoraslaan and Archimedeslaan. I’ll call it the Archimedeslaan path, or Archimedespad for short.
For virtual ride along the route, check out the following video by Dutch cycling blogger Mark Wagenbuur. He starts roughly in the middle of the line on the map above and heads toward point A, which he reaches about 2 minutes in.
This bicycle path is far from exceptional in The Netherlands, I chose it simply because it’s a route I have used several times. There are countless other routes in the Netherlands that are just as good.